Regenerative medicine has until recently been loosely associated with use of embryonic or mesenchymal stem cells, the latter with wider acceptance due to availability, immunomodulatory properties, low immunogenicity, and therapeutic potential. While use of stem cells in a myriad of diseases is extensive in adults, there is yet very little experience with stem cells in children. Possible therapeutic targets in the future include graft-versus-host disease, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, lung disease, and autoimmune disease. Regenerative medicine is now also discussed in the context of organ printing with tissue building blocks called spheroids. There is promise in the early experience with tissue engineering in children.
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